Cognitive Behavioral Therapy


Clinical Hypnosis

Anxiety Disorders


Anxiety Disorders

ANXIETY Disorders


Anxiety disorders are very common in the community.  Anxiety disorders tend to be chronic and may become quite disabling.  Fortunately, they are among the most successfully treated emotional disorders. There are several types of anxiety disorders, each with distinct features:


Panic Disorder is characterized by repeated panic or anxiety attacks.  Panic attacks can occur out of the blue for no apparent reason and usually last for just a few minutes.  They are described as a sudden onset of intense apprehension, fearfulness or terror, often with feelings of impending doom.  During most panic attacks, associated symptoms may include:  shortness of breath, dizziness, unsteady feelings, heart palpitations, trembling or shaking, sweating, chest pain, choking, feelings of unreality, and a fear of dying or going crazy.  A common effect of recurring panic attacks is that the person begins to avoid the situations they associate with past attacks.


Agoraphobia is characterized by persistent avoidance of places or situations in which hone feels trapped or fears having a panic attack and/or being unable to escape from the situation.  The fear and anxiety can become so debilitating that some individuals become completely housebound.  Agoraphobic avoidance can include avoiding elevators, crowds, busy streets, traveling, using public transportation, driving, or being alone.


Social Phobia is characterized by the experience of significant anxiety in certain types of social or performance situations.  Social phobics often fear the evaluation or judgment of others, or fear behaving in a way that will lead to ridicule or embarrassment.  Situations avoided by social the phobic include:  public speaking, eating in restaurants, using public washrooms, completing tasks in front of people and socializing.  Panic or anxiety attacks frequently occur in these situations.


Specific Phobia is characterized by excessive anxiety brought on by exposure to a specific feared object or situation, often leading to avoidance behavior.  It causes a sense of dread so intense that the individual will do anything to avoid the source of their fear.  Even thinking about facing the feared object or situation can bring on a panic attack. Commonly feared specific objects or situations include blood and needles, hospitals, closed-in places, dogs, insects, bridges or highways, elevators, heights, driving and flying.


Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is characterized by recurrent, intrusive, and unpleasant thoughts, images or impulses, which are referred to as obsessions.  The anxiety caused by these obsessions becomes so distressing that people develop strategies for dealing with them.  These strategies are referred to as compulsions or rituals and are attempts to relieve the anxiety caused by the intrusive and obsessive thoughts. The person spends excessive amounts of time preoccupied with the obsessive thoughts and rituals which interfere significantly with their normal daily functioning. The most common obsessions include dirt or germ contamination, disease or illness, doubt, and thoughts of violence or hostility.  Common compulsions include hand washing, counting rituals, repeating certain movements over and over, checking and re-checking, collecting or hoarding items, and straightening or lining things up.


Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is a condition that occurs when an individual has survived a terrifying, often life-threatening event, such as a serious car accident or a violent attack.  Persons who have survived a traumatic event may become so preoccupied with the experience that they are not able to live a normal life.  They frequently relive the event in vivid detail through frightening memories or nightmares, which may increase their fears. They may also experience emotional numbness, avoidance, sleep problems, depression, irritability, more aggressive behavior, violent outbursts, or panic attacks.


Generalized Anxiety Disorder is characterized by excessive anxiety and worry about a number of ordinary events or activities such as work or school performance, their health or safety, or simply the thought of making it through the day.  The person often finds it difficult to control the anxiety and becomes unable to carry out even the most ordinary daily activity.  The worries are often associated with restlessness, feeling keyed up or on edge, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, irritability, muscle tension, headache and sleep disturbance.